Page 148 - Athletic Health Handbook
P. 148
not bar soap, is the first step to Fungal Infections Bacterial Infections
prevent infection transmission.
Paper towels should be used to Tinea Impetigo
dry the hands and not cloth towels. Identification: These infections
Mandating showers after practice tend to localize to warm, moist Identification: Impetigo can be
and games is another important step. areas of the body. They are caused by either Streptococcus
The sharing of equipment, clothing, named based on their anatomical or Staphylococcus. The lesions
and towels should be discouraged. location: tinea capitis (head), are well-defined, erythematous
Athletic clothes and towels should tinea corporis (body, commonly blisters.7 After rupture, these
be laundered daily and equipment known as ringworm), tinea cruris blisters become crusted over
that cannot be laundered, such as (groin, commonly known as and are classically described as
headgear or protective pads, should jock itch), and tinea pedis (feet, “honey-colored.” Impetigo
be disinfected regularly. Other commonly known as athlete’s typically affects the area around
high-traffic surfaces, such as locker foot). They present as scaly, the nose and mouth. Cultures
room benches, training tables, weight erythematous lesions with raised and antibiotic sensitivities should
room equipment, and wrestling borders. Diagnosis is usually be obtained.
mats, should be disinfected daily. clinical. If needed, cultures of Containment: For bacterial
Lastly, all skin lesions should be lesion scrapings are the gold infections it is important to not
promptly reported to the team standard for diagnosis or KOH just cover the lesions and allow
physician, training staff, or coach preparations visualized with a return to sporting activities.
in an attempt to prevent the spread microscopy can be used to look Three days of antibiotics, no new
of the infection.3-5 for the presence of hyphae.6 lesions for at least 48 hours, and
Containment: Athletes with no further drainage or exudates
Team physicians play an important a tinea infection should be from the lesions should all occur
role in not only treating athletes with withheld from participation before a return to sport is
an established infection, but also in for three days following the considered with appropriate
preventing the spread of the infection initiation of topical treatment. coverage of the lesion.4,6
to teammates and competitors. In Lesions should be covered when Education: The main mode of
this article, the diagnosis, treatment, participation is resumed.4 transmission is direct contact;
and prevention of the most common Education: Transmission can however fomites may play a role
cutaneous infections encountered occur by direct contact or via and thus athletic gear should be
in athletes will be discussed. The fomites. Thorough showering and laundered or disinfected.8
infections are broken down into adequate drying of warm, moist Treatment: Topical antibiotics
fungal, bacterial, and viral. For bodily areas can help prevent the are used, preferably based on
each pathogen the ICE-T approach infection. Using shower sandals, the culture sensitivities. Oral
is presented: clean socks, clean underwear, antibiotics are often used as well
and dry shoes are also valuable to prevent more serious and
Identify: Identification of the preventative measures. widespread infections.9
offending pathogen is important Treatment: A topical antifungal
for treatment and to prevent should be applied to the lesion at Folliculitis, Furuncles,
the spread of the infection. least twice a day. Oral antifungal and Carbuncles
Contain: The infection must be medications can be added to the
contained so as not to spread to topical treatment if necessary.4 Identification: These entities
other areas of the body or to represent a spectrum of Staph
other athletes. Tinea aureus infected hair follicles. They
Educate: It is important to typically present in hairy areas
educate athletes and coaches of high friction and perspiration,
about the transmission of especially if the area has been
these infections and easy shaved, taped, or abraided.4
preventative measures. Small papules and pustules are
Treat: Treatment of the infection seen in folliculitis. Furuncles and
is important for the afflicted carbuncles are larger, deeper,
athlete and to prevent the spread and more inflamed.
of the infection to others. Containment: These lesions
should be cultured to rule out
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