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References

1. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Technical Bulletin #189: Exercise during pregnancy and the
postpartum period. Washington DC: ACOG Press; 1994.

2. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Opinion #267: Exercise during pregnancy and the
postpartum period. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 2002;77:79-81.

3. American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM’s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA:
Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins; 2000.

4. Artal R, Fortunato V, Welton A, et al. A comparison of cardiopulmonary adaptations to exercise in pregnancy at sea level and
altitude. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1995;172:1170-1180.

5. Artal R, Sherman C. Exercise during pregnancy: safe and beneficial for most. Phys Sports Med. 1999;27:51-52, 54, 57-58.

6. Camporesi EM. Diving and pregnancy. Semin Perinatol. 1996;20:292-302.

7. Clapp JF III. The changing thermal response to endurance exercise during pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1991;165:1684-9.

8. Clapp JF III. A clinical approach to exercise during pregnancy. Clin Sports Med. 1994;13:443-458.

9. Clapp JF III, Little KD, Appleyby-Wineberg SK, et al. The effect of regular maternal exercise on erythropoietin in cord blood
and amniotic fluid. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1995;172:1445-51.

10. Clapp JF III. The morphometric and neurodevelopmental outcome at 5 years of the offspring of women who continued to
exercise throughout pregnancy. J Pediatr. 1996;129:856.

11. Clapp JF III, Lopez B, Harcar-Sevcik R. The neonatal behavioral profile of the offspring of women who continued to exercise
regularly throughout pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999;180:91.

12. Clapp JF III. Exercise during pregnancy: A clinical update. Clin Sports Med. 2000;19:2.

13. Clark SL, Cotton DB, Pivarnik JM, et al. Position change and central hemodynamic profile during normal third-trimester
pregnancy and postpartum. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1991;164:883-887 [erratum in Am J Obstet Gynecol 1991;165:241].

14. Christian JS, Christian SS, Stamm CA, et al. Physiology and exercise. In: Ireland ML, Nattiv A, eds. The Female Athlete.
New York, NY: Elsevier Science; 2002.

15. Jackson MR, Gott P, Lye SJ, et al. The effects of maternal aerobic exercise on human placental development: placental
volumetric composition and surface area. Placenta. 1995;16:179-91.

16. Jovanovic-Peterson L, Peterson CM. Exercise and the nutritional management of diabetes during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol
Clin North Am. 1996;23:75-86.

17. Pivarnik JM, Mauer MB, Ayres NA, et al. Effects of chronic exercise on blood volume expansion and hematologic indices
during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 1994;83:265-9.

18. van Doom NIB, Lotgerung FK, Struijk PC, et al. Maternal and fetal cardiovascular responses to strenuous bicycle exercise.
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1992;166:854-9.

19. Veille JC, Hohimer AR, et al. The effect of exercise on uterine activity in the last 8 weeks of pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol.
1985;151:727-730.

Recommended Reading

1. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Opinion #267: Exercise during pregnancy and the postpartum
period. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 2002;77:79-81.

2. Christian JS, Christian SS, Stamm CA, et al. Physiology and exercise. In: Ireland ML, Nattiv A, eds. The Female Athlete.
New York, NY: Elsevier Science; 2002.

3. Clapp JF III. Exercise during pregnancy: A clinical update. Clin Sports Med. 2000;19:2.

4. Clapp JF III, Kim H, Burciu B, et al. Continuing regular exercise during pregnancy: effect of exercise volume on fetoplacental
growth. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002;186:142-147.

© AMERICAN ORTHOPAEDIC SOCIETY FOR SPORTS MEDICINE, 2008, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

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